GIS Data Capture is a method where the data on different map attributes, facilities, resources, and organizational information are digitized and organised on an objective GIS system in appropriate layers.
Basically, two types of methods are generally used for Data Capturing in GIS:
1. Primary GIS Data Capture Method.
2. Secondary GIS Data Capture Method.
The Primary GIS Data Capture Method used remote sensing and surveying technologies to capture data using Raster Data Capture or Vector Data Capture.
Raster Data Capture Method:
Capturing of attributes without physical contact.
This is usually done with the help of Satellite
Imaging Techniques and Aerial Photography.
The advantage of this GIS Data Capture Method is that there is a consistency in the data generated and the whole process can be regularly and systematically organized to get the most accurate data in a very cost-effective manner.
Vector Data Capture Method:
Capturing of datasets through physical surveying
techniques such as Differential Global Positioning
System (DGPS) and Electronic Total Station
Although this technique is the most effective process to obtain accurate results on the target GIS system, it is more time consuming and costly.
The Secondary GIS Data Capture Method used technologies such as scanning, manual digitizing, vectorization, photogrammetry, and feature construction to Capture Data.
The following descriptions are below:
Scanning Raster Data:
High resolution scanners give very accurate raster images from the hard copies, which then can be Georeferenced and Digitized to get the Vector output.
Manual Digitization is done directly over the raster using a digitizing tablet.
The Raster Scanned Data is imported and laid below the vector data to be traced on the computer screen itself.
Automatic Raster to Vector Conversion:
UIZ uses special software with intelligent algorithms to recognize the patterns of the points, lines and polygon features and capture them automatically to generate Vector GIS Data.
UIZ uses Digital Stereo-Plotters to capture the Vector Data from the Aerial Photographs. This is comparatively the most effective method for accurately capturing GIS Data
Land records and Survey Data are captured by
using GIS for property, land, water, and holding tax.
Ecological and Physical Geography to break down the effect individuals have on the earth as well as to consider the components of air, biosphere, and geosphere.
GIS Data Capture is also used for weather maps, mining, and mineral exploration maps as well as Geological Maps.
Utility infrastructure GIS Data Capture for Water lines, Road network, sewerage network, and other related issues.
Navigation Data is also captured with the help of GIS Data Capture and used for navigation process.
GIS Capture Data is also used for analysing Hydrographic Mapping, vegetation, regional issues, and transportation facility.
Crisis Management Information System to give continuous information to crisis responders about the Geographical design.