GIS (Geographical Information System) is mainly used for mapping processes. GIS is a computer-based information system that is aimed at collecting, storing, manipulating, analyzing, organizing, managing, summarizing and displaying all types of geographical data. GIS has a wide range of application. It is equally important in natural resource management. The GIS in Natural resource Management is a resourceful technique in measuring the natural resource assets. The GIS in Natural resource Management identifies the human impacts on natural resource and support for the utilization of natural resources. Firstly the data are collected from the land cover, vegetation, soil and geology which are the parts of natural resources and then they are mapped using GIS technology. These data are collected using remote sense technique through aerial photographs or satellite image for study.
The major application of GIS in natural resource management is in confronting environmental issues like flood, landslide, soil erosions, drought, earthquake etc. GIS in natural resource management also address the current problems of climate change, habitat loss, population growth, pollution etc. The solution to these problems is the application of GIS in natural resource management. Yes, introduction to GIS has solved many problems related to the natural environment. GIS is a powerful tool that is used in the management of natural resources. Some applications of GIS in major fields are discussed below:
GIS in natural resource management is used in the reduction of a natural hazard such as flood, landslide, soil erosion, forest fires, earthquake, drought etc. One cannot totally stop these natural disasters but can minimize these warnings by early planning, preparation, and strategies. GIS in natural resource management is being used in analyzing, organizing, managing and monitoring the natural hazards. GIS in natural resource management provides a spatial data of the disasters that have taken place before or might to occur so that early risk can be prevented. It is indicated on the GIS-based map.
GIS in natural resource management provides information about land area change between time periods. The land change documents detected through satellite imagery or aerial photographs. It is a useful application in land change, deforestation assessment, urbanization, habitat fragmentation etc. The information obtained from GIS in natural resource management help to study the specific area and monitoring can be done in and around the area. It is a way of studying the variations taking place in the landscape and managing the environment.
Natural resource inventory is a statistical survey of the condition of natural resources. It provides relevant information about the environmental condition and policy including conservation program that is obtained through GIS in natural resource management. The information through maps in GIS provides the information of location and current resources.
GIS in natural resource management provides a graphical data that helps in monitoring the environment. It determines the qualitative and quantitative data about the environmental issues such as pollution, land degradation, soil erosions etc. GIS in natural resource management detects these problems and predicts the future hazards. Thus, GIS in natural resource management monitors all these environmental problems.
Further applications are briefly pointed as below:
Therefore, GIS is a suitable technology for the understanding of natural resource management. It is an effective technique to learn the factors affecting environment including its result and execution. The geospatial data taken through this GIS meet the sustainable use of natural resources. Thus, GIS in natural resource management guides in managing the resources properly and wisely in the present and future generation. In addition, GIS in natural resource management helps in the management of natural resources effectively and efficiently.